The changes in the world today are characterized by new levels of complexity and contradiction. These changes generate tensions for which education is expected to prepare individuals and communities by giving them the capability to adapt and to respond. This publication contributes to rethinking education and learning in this context. It builds on one of UNESCO’s main tasks as a global observatory of social transformation with the objective of stimulating public policy debate. It is a call for dialogue among all stakeholders. It is inspired by a humanistic vision of education and development, based on respect for life and human dignity, equal rights, social justice, cultural diversity, international solidarity, and shared responsibility for a sustainable future. These are the fundamentals of our common humanity. This book enhances the vision provided by the two landmark UNESCO publications: Learning to Be: The world of education today and tomorrow (1972), the ‘Faure Report’, and Learning: The treasure within (1996), the ‘Delors Report’.